John Jennings, Manager
“We are beginning to learn that our brains are hardwired to react positively to water and that being near it can calm and connect us, increase innovation and insight, and even heal what’s broken. We have a ‘blue mind’ — and it’s perfectly tailored to make us happy in all sorts of ways that go way beyond relaxing in the surf, listening to the murmur of a stream, or floating quietly in a pool.” – Wallace J. Nichols writes in Blue Mind: The Surprising Science That Shows How Being Near, In, On, or Under Water Can Make You Happier, Healthier, More Connected, and Better at What You Do, published in July 2014
Last Saturday, Greg Touliatos gave a great talk on water gardening. If you missed it, look for it on next year’s calendar of free classes. In the mean time, here are my thoughts, based upon Greg’s talk and his one page “Healthy Water Gardening Recipe.”
No garden is complete without a water feature of some sort. Water is life. Indeed, in nearly every description of gardens in literature, water figures prominently.
“A river went out of Eden to water the garden, and from there it parted and became four riverheads.” – Genesis 2:10
A healthy water garden is essentially a balanced, nearly self-contained, eco-system. If set up correctly, in the beginning, it can be very low maintenance, though not no-maintenance, for years to come. Everything works together.
First, a healthy population of beneficial bacteria is essential for any healthy pond. Beneficial bacteria chews up fish waste and debris that washes into the pond. It keeps odors down and turns many toxic substances into benign or even beneficial substances for pond plant life.
Because the size of your population of beneficial bacteria is a function of surface area, Greg recommends a layer of medium brown gravel for the bottom of your pond. Over-sized gravel has too much space between rocks. Also, it is difficult to walk on, if and when someone occasionally has to get into a pond to clean it or retrieve an item, like a baseball. Conversely, pea gravel packs down too tightly, defeating the point of gravel, which is to increase the quantity of surface space on the bottom of the pond for bacterial colonies to develop. Finally, medium sized gravel is relatively inexpensive, less than $50 per ton at the time of this writing. It can be supplemented for appearance purposes with more expensive rock, like Carolina Creek Rock or Mexican Beach Pebbles, but these products are too expensive and impractical to use as the main gravel for layering the bottom of a pond.
Build it and they will come? Maybe. Since we maintain good bacterial colonies in the pools we keep our fish and water plants in, it is likely that you will take some of those good bacteria home with you to your pond when you buy fish and plants from us. If you have set the stage with the right environment for bacteria to thrive in, with gravel and well-oxygenated water, chances are good they will find their way there. But, it is better to be sure.
Thus, Greg recommends two products for helping to maintain a healthy colony of beneficial bacteria, “Microbe Lift PL” and “Microbe Lift TAC.” He suggests ignoring the quantities in the instructions on the container (but not ignoring any safety instructions) and using what his experience has taught him is the correct approach, through trial and error.
Microbe Lift PL is a liquid, very stinky but very good. It comes with a measuring container in the box, about the size of a shot glass. Greg says use one shot glass per week, just dumping it directly into the water. If you have a UV light of some kind that you use as a part of your filtering/maintenance system, something Greg is not a big fan of, you need to turn it off for at least 72 hours after every application, or it is likely to just kill the bacteria.
Microbe Lift TAC is a powdered product, also filled with beneficial bacteria. Each jar comes with a small scoop and Greg says to add one scoop per day of this. If you don’t visit your pond every day, don’t let it become a burden. Just dump a scoop directly into the water every time you visit your pond, so long as you are also adding a shot glass of the Microbe Lift PL each week.
Second, make sure there are plenty of plants in the pond. Cover half to three quarters of the surface of the pond with plants to provide hiding places from predators for fish and reduce the prevalence of algae by cutting off sunlight intruding into the water. Reducing sunlight intruding into the pond water reduces algae.
There are four types of water plants to use in your pond: 1. Underwater oxygenating plants, like hornwort and purple cabomba; 2. Floating water plants, generally tropical and replaced yearly, like water hyacinth, sensitive plants, ludwegia, and water lettuce; 3. Water lilies, both hardy and/or tropical; and, 4. Marginal (shallow water) plants, like pickerel rush, powdery thalia, umbrella palm, equisetum (horsetail reed), and louisiana iris.
Third, use a product called Microbe lift Bio-Black, sparingly. I say “sparingly,” because a little goes a long way! Potent stuff.
Bio-Black is a liquid combination of pond colorant and enzymes. By tinting the water slightly, without making it opaque, sunlight penetration is reduced and, as I have already mentioned above, reducing sunlight reduces algae. According to the manufacturer and our experience, it: 1. will not stain birds, fish, pond rocks, or most concrete fountains once diluted; 2. is safe for humans, plants, and aquatic life; 3. safely colors water a reflective shade of black; 4. blocks out specific light rays that normally contribute to algae blooms; 5. digests organic waste; 6. reduces noxious odors; 7. does not necessitate restrictions on irrigation or fishing; and 8. Mixes completely in hours.
“Green water” is one of the biggest complaints we get from customers and clients. Green water is just algae, and Bio-Black is an important algae preventative measure. People like to be able to see your fish!
Fourth, circulate water with a high quality pump and filtration system. Make sure that your pump is continuous duty, i.e. not just made for short term use, and is of high quality, like the ones we currently carry that are made by Anjon. Although choosing a pump is a bit more complicated than this, a rule of thumb is that you want to circulate the water in the pond at least twice each hour. So, for example, if you have a 300 gallon water feature, you would want a pump that is rated at least 600 gallons per hour, minimum, with few exceptions.
Generally, pumps last longer if water is filtered before entering the pump. The best way to do this is to use a skimmer box with a filtering system built around the pump. The skimmer box, usually on the edge of the pond, allows the pond owner to access the pump without going into the pond and completely separates the pump from debris. It makes for fewer clogged pumps and easier maintenance.
But, installing a skimmer box, cutting the pond liner to fit around it and getting the skimmer box perfectly positioned, is better done by an experienced professional. So, if you have never constructed a pond with a skimmer box, you are better off placing the pump directly on the bottom of the pond. Sometimes, even pros choose to sit the pump directly on the bottom of the pond, if something about the site makes a skimmer box impractical. This can work with a good pre-filter, like our Matala Ez-Bio 11 and Ez-Bio 20 pre-filters. Debris can clog or at least slowly wear out pumps. Our highest grade of pumps, the Anjon Big Frogs, are said to be able to cut a golf ball into four pieces if one gets sucked through! But, it is best if it doesn’t have to do that.
If you use our Matala pre-filters, make the tubing between filter and pump as large as possible, use flexible tubing, make it long, and attach a piece of string or rope so that you can pull it up from the bottom if an when it appears blocked by accumulated debris. Small tubing, though tempting to use from an esthetics point of view, puts more strain on the pump and usually kinks easier, creating more problems all around.
So, bigger is usually better, within reason. Bigger capacity pumps get clogged less, last longer, and circulate the water more frequently. Bigger filtration systems reduce the particulate matter going through the pump so that it lasts longer. Bigger tubing, connecting pre-filter to pump and pump to outflow, means less clogging.
Many pumps, particularly the smaller pumps, come with a built-in but removable filtering device. In most cases, except perhaps in a fountain with no fish or plant matter and no trees to drop leaves in it, this built-in filter is inadequate and should be discarded and replaced with a better quality filtration system.
Fifth, use Microbe-Lift Aqua Xtreme when constructing a new water garden or changing water in or adding water to an existing water garden. According to Greg, “This product helps create a slime coat that protects your fish and fortifies water added to the pond.”
Sixth, every time you add a scoop of Microbe Lift TAC, toss in a pinch of pond salt. Pond salt also contributes to a healthy slime coat on your fish, reducing fish disease, but, additionally it helps settle out suspended particles, making your water less cloudy, and less hospitable to algae. According to Greg, it is “frankly a miracle for helping keep your pond right.” If you don’t do a pinch per day, at least do a handful or two per month.
‘Water that is too pure has no fish.” –Afghan Proverb
Finally, don’t be one of those people that demands perfectly clear water. Ponds are natural eco-systems, always in flux, filled with millions of organisms. I don’t know anyone from Afghanistan and I don’t know that Afghanis are particularly knowledgeable about water gardening, but, like many blog writers, I hunt for quotes to justify what I believe and I found a good one, a supposed Afghan proverb, floating (see what I did there?) around on the internet: “Water that is too pure has no fish.” Water gardens should not be cesspools but they are not swimming pools either.